Normal groups in Active Directory are cached so authentication requests can return groups that the user is a member of as part of the Windows Token. Universal groups, however, aren’t included in the Windows Token as the Universal groups that the user might be a member of might not be in the same domain that the request is handled by.
The internals of why Universal Groups don’t work requires a decent understanding of the internals of Windows Authentication Tokens and Windows Security. But needless to say, all that you need to know is that Universal Groups don’t work with SQL Server.
Because the Universal Groups aren’t in the authentication token when the SQL Server goes to see if the user has access, the token says that the user doesn’t. The fix for this is quite easy, use a different Windows Domain Group type than Universal Groups.